LeftMouse: for buttons, sliders, text input, placing the 3D cursor
Left+Ctrl: add a vertex
Left+Alt: emulate middle mouse
Middle: change a view (rotate), during transformations the delimiter
Middle+Shift: change view (pan)
Middle+Ctrl: zoom view in/out
Right: select + activate
Right+Shift: extend select
Right+Ctrl: selecting and activating, only at object centers
Right: hold-move-release: translation mode
F1: load file
F2: save file
F3: save image
F12 render image
ESC: restore/escape anything
Numerical pad: various views
Space: toolbox menu
Three basic methods:
Select with right mouse one thing, extend with Shift
Select with border: hit b and draw box with left mouse
hit a to select/deselect all
Active and selected
Only one thing can be active
Any number can be selected (but active shows up lighter)
Translate: hit g for grab mode, move mouse, confirm with left mouse or
enter, cancel with ESC
Or, hold-move with right mouse.
Can use middle mouse to constrain to X,Y,Z motion.
Rotate: hit r for rotation mode (same confirm/cancel).
Scale: hit s for scale mode (same confirm/cancel/constrain to X,Y,Z)
Objects and Editmode
TAB toggles Editmode on/off. With Editmode you can add vertices and faces,
extrude polygons, assign colors, draw curves. You can't add or activate
other objects, for that leave Editmode by hitting TAB. That is, if you
add anything while in Editmode, you add into the same object.
Mesh edit example
Clear Blender with Ctrl-x.
Hit a to deselect everything (maybe twice, selected things are pink and
unselected black), then select the plane with right mouse, press TAB to
go to editmode (the vertices will show up).
Select the 4 vertices (right+Shift).
Hit e for extrude, confirm with Enter.
In extrusion, you are in grab mode, i.e., you can move the selected thing.
Hit num pad 1 (or select side view from the window header, see image on
the right) to go to side view, move the selection with mouse, confirm with
left button. Repeatedly extrude to make a snake.
Take a look using middle button or Alt left button.
Coffee cup tutorial
Clear all with Ctrl-x.
Make sure plane is selected (right mouse), go to edit mode (TAB).
Select all vertices (hit a), delete them (x + Enter).
Add the bottom of a coffee cup, press SPACE, choose Add Mesh Circle from
the toolbox with the left mouse.
Select 32 vertices, hit enter to accept. The selected vertices will show
Go to side view (num pad 3). Hit e for extrude, move the mouse up by 5
squares (hold Ctrl down), confirm with Lclick or ENTER.
View the tube (middle or left+Alt), return to side view (pad 3)
Hit s to scale the top a bit larger, left mouse or ENTER confirms.
Zoom in closer (Shift+middle to pan, Ctrl+middle to zoom).
Now we'll add 4 small extrusions to make a rounded edge. Hit e, Enter,
move a couple of pixels up using Cursor-Up, hit SPACE (or ENTER or Lclick)
Extrude again, move again up a bit, SPACE to end. Then scale things a bit
smaller (s), SPACE to end.
Add one more extrude, now move them down, and then scale still a bit smaller.
You should now have something like this (from another viewpoint).
Then add a bottom. Deselect all (a), then hit b to do a box selection for
the bottom vertices (with left mouse), add two small extrudes to make a
rounded edge, press Shift+F to fill the bottom. Rotate view to take a look,
return to side view (pad 3).
Create another circle (Shift A), now use only 8 vertices (can select by
using the left mouse as a slider on the number), confirm. Scale the circle
(s) to about 15% of the original size.
Go to front view (pad 1), hit g for the grab mode, move the circle to the
right of the cup.
Place the 3D cursor one grid below the circle. You can use the snap menu
(SHIFT S) for precise alignment of the selected item to grid (S 1) or to
3D cursor (S 2), the cursor to grid (S 3) or selected item (S 4).
Go to editbuttons (F9), hit the Spin button (salmon colored) twice. You
can see how to circle is spin extruded around the cursor.
Select all the vertices in the handle (move the mouse cursor over the handle,
hit l [small L])
Position the handle by grabbing it (g) (you need also other views [pad
1,3,7] for this, and rotation r)
Leave editmode (TAB), press z to view solid display, hit z again to restore
Scale the cup to about half a size (try holding Ctrl down)
Make sure you are not in Editmode (TAB, no visible vertices). Hit EditButtons->"Set
Smooth" (light blue button). If you'd do this in editmode, only the selected
faces would be smoothed. Choose the solid display mode (z), try toggling
"Set Smooth" and "Set Solid".
Hit F5 for material buttons. Mix a green color using the RGB sliders.
Add a light, press SPACE. To find the Add Lamp item, press right mouse
once or move the mouse to the left.
The lamp was added to the 3D cursor location. Zoom out (pad minus, zoom
in obviously pad plus) and hit G to grab and move the light. You might
want to use different viewpoints while moving. Move the light to left front
of the cup (from the camera's viewpoint). Hit F12 to render, F11 hides
the render window.
Add a plane to serve as a table for the cup. Top view (pad 7), Shift A,
Add->Mesh->Plane. Leave editmode (TAB, no vis. verts). Grab (g or right
mouse) to move the plane, use e.g. views pad 7 and pad 1.
Scale (s) the plane much larger.
Material buttons (F5) don't show a material yet. Use the small square menu
button to add a new material
(ADD NEW). Choose a brownish color.
Add a texture to the table, hit F6 for the texture buttons. From a similar
menu button add a new texture block (ADD NEW, assigned automatically to
the material of the plane).
Press the grey "Marble" button to set the texture type, hit F5, to get
material buttons back. Change the purble mix color with the RGB sliders
on the right side of the window to lighter brown.
To enable shadows, change the lamp into a spot light. Select lamp (right
mouse), press F4 for lamp buttons, press green "Spot" button. Use the front
(pad 1) and side (pad 3) views to orient (rotate r) the lamp to point at
the cup. For nice shadows, also move (g) the lamp higher.
Use the slider LampButtons->SpotBl to make softer lighting.
Increase the lamps "Energy" value to 2.0
Go to side view (pad 3), move the camera up (g), rotate to view the scene
(r). Use pad 0 to check what the camera sees.
Hit F10 for display buttons, select the "Shadow" to enable shadows. Hit
F12 for rendering.
With a bit different lighting...
Flying logo tutorial
Start with clean Blender Ctrl x (release all memory, load .B.blend startup
Delete the standard plane (x, Enter)
Go to front view (pad 1), camera is in the center of the 3D window.
To have a clean work space, activate layer 2 (hit 2). You can also do it
by clicking from layer buttons
If you hold SHIFT while selecting, you can select at the same time several
layers. The layers can be handy to separate different parts of design and
to reduce clutter.
Model letters with curve objects (Bezier curves). Hit Shift A, select Add->Curve->BezierCircle.
Bezier curves are defined by handles (consisting of 3 vertices) that define
curve positions and curvature. We'll first create letter O, do more difficult
With all vertices selected, make a duplicate (Shift D). The duplicate is
in grab mode, switch to scale by hitting s. Scale the new circle to 30%
of the original size (try holding CTRL down), confirm with left button.
Leave edit mode (TAB), hit z to see this
Go back hitting z and TAB. If you would add a curve outside of the edit
mode, it would become a separate object. Next we draw a rounded 'L'. Start
a new curve by selecting a single handle of the circle with the right button,
hit Shift D, move the mouse to left and position the handle like this.
Now, add new handles to this curve with Ctrl left mouse clicks.
Do this 5 times to make the rounded 'L' shape.
The yellow color of the handle shows it has 'auto type'. Select a handle
at the center vertex, hit g. If you move the mouse you can see the curvature
change. Hit ESC to restore the old position.
Hit c to make the curve cyclic. Only cyclic curves can be filled.
Make 'G' by copying 'L'. Select the curve by having mouse cursor be close
to 'L' and hit l (small L, 'select Linked'). Hit Shift D to duplicate,
move to the right side of 'O'. Hit r to rotate, hold Ctrl down to rotate
The tail of 'G' needs a sharp angle, select the handle by right clicking
the center vertex. Hit v to change the handle type to 'vector'. Now you
can adjust the end points separately to new positions (select, hit g).
The handle changes to black 'free handle'.
The same is true for the yellow 'auto' handles, when you move one of its
end points, the type changes to pink 'aligned' handle.
The hotkeys for handle types are
Shift H: auto handle
h: free or aligned handle (toggle)
v: vector handle
The easiest way to move the handles is with the combined select-grab gesture:
select a vertex with the right mouse, keep it pressed and move a few pixels,
release right mouse as the grab mode begins. Now edit the handles to create
the 'G' shape.
Hit a to deselect all. Select with L the central circle of 'O' (with the
mouse cursor next to it), duplicate it (Shift D), and move it (g) to the
center of 'G'.
Duplicate and place both circles of 'O' for the last 'O' (deselect with
a, then boxselect with b and drag). When moving, you might want to constrain
the motion by the middle button (or Alt left button). If the screen is
too small, you can zoom out (view all) by hitting HOME.
Now create a crown on top of the first 'O'. Duplicate a handle, place it
above the first 'O'.
Hit v to make the handle a 'vector'. Add new vertices by Ctrl left mouse
(note that they all are 'vectors'), hit c to make it cyclic.
The bottom line's curve should match the curve of the 'O', select the endpoints
of the bottom line to create a bend.
You might want to save your work now. Hit F2, select a directory, change
the name, hit ENTER twice (first to affirm the new name, second time to
save). You can very easily save different versions: hit F2, then + (plus)
which adds the version by one (- subtracts), then ENTER.
Leave editmode (TAB) and open the edit buttons (F9). Find the grey buttons
Ext1 and Ext2, which control the extrusion and beveling width. Hit Shift
left mouse to edit the numbers. Shift BackSpace clears the contents, type
0.2 and hit Enter, set Ext2 to 0.06. View the scene both in and out of
Editmode. In Editmode you see the letters as flat curves, while out of
Editmode you can see them extruded and beveled.
Hit z for the solid display, then num 0 for camera view. The logo is too
big, scale (s) it down and move (g) it to center.
Now we'll make two materials. Hit F5 to view materal buttons (no material
Press the square menu button in the header
and choose 'Material'. The 'zero' in front of the name shows there are
no users for this
color. In fact, it was the Material for the initial Plane that we removed.
Then press the little 'car' icon in the header to assign an automatic name
to the Material (grey).
For a metallic look we assign this material a colored specularity. Press
the small 'Spec' button to make the RGB sliders show the specular color,
lower G and B to make orange color.
Objects in Blender can have up to 16 different materials. The
whole text and the crown is still a single object (try going out of Editmode
and selecting only one character, can't). To assign the 'crown' a different
color, we add a second Material index with the button EditButtons->New
(F9). The button above New shows there are two Materials, with the second
one active. To decrease or increase the active index you can press to the
right or left hand side of this button. Leave 2 active for now.
Enter Editmode (TAB) and select crown (l, 'select Linked').
Press EditButtons->Assign to assign color index 2 for this curve. Leave
edit mode (TAB).
Return to material buttons (F5), you'll see this header.
The buttons are now blue-grey to show this Material has more users,
namely 2. In fact, by pressing EditButtons->New we created a curve object
with two links to the same material "Grey".
Press the "2" button to make this link 'Single User'. Now a full duplicate
is made of the material ("Grey.001"). Assign the material a new yellow-orange
color, recall to press "Color" button to make RGB sliders to affect the
basic color, then hit the "car" button to assign the Material a name.
Hit z once or twice to view the results. The crown has now the second Material.
Next add two lights: Shift A, right mouse for main menu, Add->Lamp. Go
to side view (pad 3) and move the lamp to front (g). Add a second lamp
to the side to boost the beveling gloss.
Press F4 for lamp buttons, assign the lamp color (for the second lamp)
to light blue. Then press the green button "Sun". With the mouse in the
3D window, press Alt r to clear the lamp's rotation. It now points straight
down, thus only illuminating the bevels. Press F12 to view rendering. Save
now a new version (F2, +, ENTER).
Let's do a simple animation so the letters move in from both sides. First
we have to separate the curve into four pieces.
Hit z for wireframe, right click to select the curve, enter edit mode (TAB).
Select a vertex from the 'L' curve, hit l to select the linked vertices.
Then press p ('seParate') to place the curve to a new object. Repeat for
the both curves of 'G' and the second 'O' (first select a vertex from outer
boundary, hit l, then select a vertex from the hole while holding SHIFT,
hit l, then p to seParate).
Leave the edit mode. Now you can select the letters individually.
Object centers are still at the original locations. Relocate them by selecting
all the curve objects (a), then press (F9) EditButtons->CentreNew.
We want the animation to have 50 frames. Press F10 for the display buttons
and change the "End" value to 50.
Move the current frame to end by pressing Shift RightArrow. Now we are
ready to insert the first 'key position' for the logo. Press pad 0 for
camera view. Move the mouse to the 3D window, still with all curves selected,
hit i ('Insert Key'). From the menu select 'LocRot' (4). The positions
and rotations for all objects have now been set for frame 50.
Press Shift LeftArrow to move the current frame to 1.
With the right mouse select 'L' and translate it (g) to the left of the
3D window, outside the dashed view borders. Hit r and with middle mouse
do a two-axis rotation. Add some random rotation by moving the mouse to
a diagonal direction. Hit i and Enter to insert this position (the selection
should be at 4th item, LocRot).
With mouse in the 3D window, hit Alt a to play back the animation. Stop
Now give new positions and rotations for the other letters (don't forget
By default, all movements start and end smoothly. To change this, we need
to edit the animation curves in IpoWindow (Interpolation).
At the top of the screen you see these buttons
Use the small menu button and choose the top item 'screen'. Now you see
the first Blender Screen. It has been arranged for animation editing. Press
HOME with the mouse cursor in the IpoWindow to view the curves in their
entirety (these curves are called IpoCurves).
By right mouse selecting each of the objects, the IpoWindow will display
the associated animation curves.
The IpoCurves are Beziers: select them (a), go to edit mode (TAB).
Let's give the animation an abrupt start: hit a to deselect handles, hit
b and drag a box to select the left handles, hit v to make them of type
'vector'. Do this for all the objects. Then try play back of the animation
Almost done, add still a ground plane. Top view (pad 7), Shift A, Add->Mesh->Plane.
Leave edit mode (TAB), position (g) the plane a bit below the logo, scale
(s) it 4 times larger.
F5 for materials, add a new one, make it black and slide the "Spec" slider
to zero to disable gloss.
F6 for textures, add a new one with the menu button, make the texture
of type "Blend".
Press the green "Sphere" option
Back to materials (F5), change the purple blend color to white. You'll
get a black plane with a circle-shaped blend.
To make the logo cast shadows on the plane, we add a third lamp (Shift
A, Add->Lamp). F4, make the lamp a "Spot".
Don't need to have this lamp to illuminate, press LampButtons->OnlyShadow.
Now the "Energy" tells the 'blackness' of the shadow, make it .75.
Locate the lamp (g) diagonally behind the logo and point it (r) at
Create a quick Gouraud view of this scene by pressing Ctrl z. At every
vertex the colors are calculated using matrials, textures, and lamps.
The plane is still black as it only has 4 vertices. Let's subdivide a couple
of times. Right mouse select the plane, enter edit mode (TAB), select all
vertices (a) and press EditButtons->Subdivide twice (or use the special
menu w, subdivide is the item 1). Leave edit mode, press pad 0. F10, put
on the "Shadows" option, F12 to render
We want to start with a black image, for this we'll add material animation
for the plane. Select plane and hit F5, go to end frame Shift RightArrow,
with mouse in the buttons window, hit i (Insert key for materials). Select
Go to frame 1 (Shift LeftArrow), slide Alpha to 0.0, hit i. If you browse
with the ArrowKeys, you can see Alpha changing.
For animation, set some things in F10. "Pics" indicates the output directory.
Click, type, Enter.
For previews, Blender can use HamX 8 bit image format. Press that button
on the right side of the menu. Image resolution 320x256 should be fine.
Activate OSA button (OverSAmpling, anti-aliasing) for better images.
Save your work, hit F2, type filename, press Enter twice.
Hit "Anim", when it's done hit "Play", ESC closes the animation window.